What is hashimoto’s disease
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What Is Hypothyroidism?
Hashimoto’s disease (also referred to as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis) is an autoimmune disorder affecting the thyroid gland. This ultimately results in a decline in hormone production which can cause hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid); a condition in which your thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of certain crucial hormones.
An autoimmune disorder is an illness caused by the immune system attacking healthy tissues. In Hashimoto’s disease, immune-system cells lead to the death of the thyroid’s hormone-producing cells. The disease usually results in a decline in hormone production (hypothyroidism).
Although anyone can develop Hashimoto’s disease, it’s most common among middle-aged women. The primary treatment is thyroid hormone replacement.
Hashimoto’s disease is also known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.
Hashimoto’s disease progresses slowly over the years. If symptoms do occur, they are mainly ones associated with hypothyroidism, these include:
• Fatigue and sluggishness
• Increased sensitivity to cold
• Increased sleepiness
• Dry skin
• Muscle weakness
• Muscle aches, tenderness and stiffness
• Joint pain and stiffness
• Irregular or excessive menstrual bleeding
• Problems with memory or concentration
• Swelling of the thyroid (goiter)
• A puffy face
• Brittle nails
• Hair loss
• Enlargement of the tongue
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Causes
There are a few different schools of thought on what causes Hashimoto’s disease. The most common theory is that it is an autoimmune disorder, caused when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland. This can be due to a number of factors, including genetics, stress, and other autoimmune disorders.
Another theory is that Hashimoto’s is caused by a viral infection. This is supported by the fact that the disease often occurs after a viral illness, and that people with Hashimoto’s are more likely to have antibodies against viruses than those without the disease.
Whatever the cause, it is clear that Hashimoto’s disease results in an underactive thyroid gland, which leads to a variety of symptoms. If you think you may have Hashimoto’s disease, speak to your doctor for a diagnosis and treatment plan.
Complications of Hypothyroidism
Complications of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are as follows:
It is an enlargement of the thyroid gland and may interfere with breathing .
Hypothyroidism can amplify the chances of depression.Heart problems
Low heart rate, Hypertension,Dyslipidemia, Heart failure
Decreased fertility is observed with hypothyroidism, A pregnant woman with untreated Hashimoto’s disease can have a baby with low IQ, Cretinism, Preterm baby, Abortion risk
It is extremely advanced hypothyroidism with symptoms including extreme sensitivity to cold temperatures, low heart rate,low breathing, lethargy and coma.
Laboratory tests to determine thyroid function include:
- Free T4 test
- Serum TSH
- Total T3
- Thyroid autoantibodies
Imaging studies and fine needle biopsy are generally not needed to diagnose Hashimoto thyroiditis.
This disease may also change the results of the following tests:
- Complete blood count
- Serum prolactin
- Serum sodium
- Total cholesterol
Untreated hypothyroidism can change how your body uses medicines that you may take for other conditions, such as epilepsy. You’ll likely need to have regular blood tests to check the levels of the medicines in your body.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis diagnosis
This condition if you have the symptoms Your doctor may suspect of an underactive thyroid.
Your doctor may also use blood tests to check your levels of:
- other thyroid hormones
- These tests can help confirm your diagnosis.
Risk Factors :
The risk factors of Hashimoto’s disease include :
• Sex :
Women are more vulnerable to getting Hashimoto’s disease , may be related to be sex hormones.
• Middle age :
Hashimoto’s disease is more commonly observed in middle age groups, but it can occurred at any age as well.
• Other autoimmune diseases:
Other autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes may raise the risk of developing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus .
• Genetics and family history :
If thyroid disorders or other autoimmune diseases run in the family, in a person increases the chances of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis .
• Excessive iodine intake :
Extreme iodine intake in the diet may act as a trigger factor among individuals already at risk for Hashimoto’s disease.
• High radiation exposure :
People exposed to high environmental radiation levels are more vulnerable to Hashimoto.
Hashimoto’s disease) Hashimoto’s thyroiditis treatment consists of pharmacotherapy management with hormone replacement therapy. Hashimoto disease this therapy cannot reverse and it can help normalise hormone levels and metabolism.
Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is an effective treatment for Hashimoto disease. Synthetic thyroxine is the most commonly used thyroid hormone replacement. Once the patient’s treatment has begun, the doctor may ask for a TSH test on a regular basis (6-10 weeks) to monitor thyroid function and determine the appropriate dose.
The pills are available in several different strengths. The exact dose your doctor prescribes will depend on a number of factors, including:
- the severity of the condition
- any other health issues
- any other medications
Affect levothyroxine absorption Medications and supplements that may include:
- antacids that contain aluminum hydroxide
- calcium supplements
- iron supplements and many multivitamins that contain iron
- some cholesterol-lowering drugs, such as cholestyramine (Questran)
- sodium polystyrene sulfonate, which is used to treat high levels of potassium in the blood
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis prevention
Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder caused by an immune system malfunction. There is no known way to prevent hashimoto’s disease or hashimoto’s thyroiditis, but a few precautions can be recommended, such as:
- Consistent exercise
- Self-medication should be avoided
- Low environmental radiation exposure
- Having a healthy diet
- Trying to avoid smoking
FAQs list :
1.What is the best treatment for Hashimoto’s disease?
Answer :The synthetic hormone works like the T-4 hormone naturally produced by the thyroid.
2. What kind of doctor treats Hashimoto’s disease?
Answer : Endocrinologists are doctors who have special training in diagnosing and treating endocrine system disorders, including Hashimoto’s disease.
3. Who is Risk of Hashimoto’s?
Answer : Hashimoto’s disease is 4 to 10 times more common in women than men. Although the disease may occur in teens or young women, it more often develops in women ages 30 to 50. Your chance of developing Hashimoto’s disease increases if other family members have the disease.
4. What is Hashimoto-Pritzker disease?
Answer : It is a rare disease known as congenital self-healing reticulo-histiocytosis, characterised by single or multiple disseminated skin lesions suchas red-purple or brown papules and nodules present at birth or soon thereafter.
5.How Hashimoto disease cause underactive thyroid?
Answer : Hashimoto disease is characterised by the production of antibodies by theimmune system that targets the thyroid gland.
The white blood cells of the patient’s immune system accumulate in the thyroid, causing inflammation and damage to the thyroid cells and a reduction in the gland’s ability to produce the necessary hormones.
This can lead to hypothyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid does not make enough hormones for the body’s needs.