Different Types of Hormones in Human Body
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The Different types of hormones will have different mechanisms of action due to their distinct chemical properties . Some of these hormones work quickly to start or stop a process and some will continually work over a long period of time to perform their functions. They help in body growth, development, metabolism, sexual function, reproduction etc. What happens to the body when these hormones will release in more or less quantity. This article deals with the list of important
our body functions to hormones necessary .
Types of Hormones
According to Chemical Composition Hormones can be categorized into three distinct groups are follows :
The three types of Hormones are –
- Peptide Hormones
- Steroid Hormones
- Amino Acid Hormones
1. Peptide Hormones
The structure of peptide hormones is that of a polypeptide chain (chain of amino acids). They bind to receptors on the surface of the cell, which are typically coupled to internally anchored protines. This class also includes small proteins, like growth hormones produced by the pituitary, and large glycoproteins such as follicle-stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary.
Peptide hormones are include insulin, glucagon, leptin, ADH and Oxytocin. They are then released in response to stimuli such as high blood glucose levels in the case of insulin. Amino acid-derived and polypeptide hormones are water-soluble and insoluble in lipids. These hormones cannot pass through plasma mem brands of cells ; therefore , their receptors are found on the surface of the target cells.
2. Steroid Hormones
Steroid hormones are lipophilic meaning they can freely diffuse across the plasma membrane of a cell. This activated complex will move into the nucleus and bind directly to DNA, acting as Transcription factor for gene expression.
3. Amine Acid Hormones
Amine acid Hormones are structure at derived from the amino acid tyrosine and include adrenaline, thryoxin and triiodothyronine. Examples for Amine Acid Hormones are Adrenaline, triiodothyronine. Examples of amino acid-derived hormones include epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are synthesized in the medulla of the adrenal glands, and thyroxine, which is produced by the thyroid gland.
Functions of Hormones
Following are some important functions of hormones:
- Food metabolism.
- Growth and development.
- Controlling thirst and hunger.
- Maintaining body temperature.
- Regulating mood and cognitive functions.
- Initiating and maintaining sexual development and reproduction.
List of important hormones and their functions.
1. Hormones of Thyroid
Thyroid gland basically releases two hormones Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4), which helps in controlling the metabolism of our body. Further, these hormones regulate weight, determines energy levels, internal body temperature, skin, hair etc.
This is the main sex hormone present in female which bring about puberty, prepares the uterus and body for pregnancy . Estrogen is mainly produced in the ovaries, and it regulates menstruation, menopause, reproduction, and sex drive. In young women going through puberty, it’s responsible for the widening of hips, the development of breasts, and the growing of pubic hair. If the estrogen level is less in female body then it leads to problem such as acne, skin lesions, thinning skin, hair loss etc.
In your sleep/wake cycles or your circadian rhythm. One of them is melatonin. Our contemporary world is particularly problematic for melatonin production. As it gets dark at night, your body makes more melatonin and you get sleepier. Your computer, cell phone and TV all reduce the amount of melatonin you produce, so either use blue blocking glasses before bed time at night or don’t use these devices.
4. Progesterone and testosterone
These two hormones are sometimes called “female” and “male” hormones, because progesterone is mostly produced in the ovaries and testosterone is mainly produced in the testicles. Both hormones are involved in reproduction.
When women don’t have enough progesterone, they may have irregular menstrual cycles and experience headaches or sudden mood changes . Low testosterone in a man might result in a low sex drive, reduced sperm count, erectile dysfunction, loss of muscle mass, and swelling of the breast tissue.
Cortisol is the stress hormone For example, in the classic fight-or-flight response, your body makes both cortisol and adrenaline.
When you are under long-term (chronic), stress, your body continues to make cortisol and other stress-related hormones. Chronic stress has been associated with obesity and increasing the heart rate, elevating blood sugar levels etc.
Most everyone knows that people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes have high blood sugar. In your bloodstream the hormone insulin is necessary for the cells in your body to properly use the glucose . With diabetes, there’s either little-to-no insulin or the body can’t use the insulin it does have properly.
Usually, before a person develops Type 2 diabetes, they have prediabetes and insulin resistance, which means they have more glucose in their bloodstream than normal because their body is not as sensitive to the insulin anymore, The blood sugar is not high With type 2 diabetes enough to be diagnosed , but the risk of developing it is much greater.
FAQs list :
1. What is the most crucial hormone in the body?
Answer : In the body There is no single “most important” hormone . Different hormones are essential for various functions.
2. What are the symptoms of hormone imbalance?
Answer : Symptoms of hormone imbalance can vary depending on which hormones are out of balance. For example, –
- Slow heartbeat or rapid heartbeat (tachycardia).
- Unexplained weight gain or weight loss.
- Diarrhea or more frequent bowel movements.
- Numbness and tingling in your hands.
- Higher-than-normal blood cholesterol levels.
3. What is the difference between a hormone and a neurotransmitter?
Answer : Hormones are chemicals that helps to the body control its growth and function. Hormones are chemicals produced by glands. They travel through the blood to the body of different parts . A neurotransmitter is a chemical that helps send messages between nerve cells in the nervous system.
4. List the types of Hormones.
Answer : Hormones are classified into two types, namely: Peptide hormones and steroid hormones.
5. 3 diseases caused by hormonal imbalance.
Answer : 3 disease named caused by hormonal imbalance –
6. What are hormones made of?
Answer : Hormones are made of either proteins or steroids.
7. Name the hormone produced by the adrenal glands.
Answer : The hormone released by the adrenal glands is called Epinephrine. It is also called adrenaline.
8. Name the hormone produced by the pineal gland.
Answer : The hormone produced by the pineal gland is Melatonin. It regulates the body’s sleep cycle.
9. Which are the hormones produced by the thyroid gland?
Answer : The thyroid gland is responsible for producing thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin.
10. Name the glands responsible for producing Testosterone.
Answer : In males, testosterone is produced by the testes while ovaries produce the same hormone in females.
11. Name the glands responsible for producing Progesterone.
Answer : Progesterone is produced by the ovaries.
12. Name the hormone responsible for Gigantism.
Answer : The hormone responsible for gigantism is growth hormones, which are released by the pituitary gland.
13. What causes Acromegaly?
Answer : Acromegaly is the result of excess production of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland, commonly as a result of a benign tumour.